Briana Hill, Co-Head of the Beverly Hills office of Cowan DeBaets Abrahams & Sheppard LLP, joins Fred Bimbler and Simon Pulman in leading the firm’s Entertainment group, which includes televison (traditional to broadband), streaming, film, new media, talent, theatre and podcasting. The group assists clients with their entertainment projects through early development, the solicitation of investment, production and ultimate distribution, securing all necessary rights and negotiating agreements with top-tier talent.
Ben Jaffe joins Joshua Sessler in leading the Digital Media & Technology group that represents top digital talent, including game developers and distributors, digital agencies, production houses, broadband video networks, mobile app developers, podcasters and social media ventures. The group provides counsel to a wide range of social media, transmedia and mobile plays that are using emerging software and hardware technologies to create, develop and distribute content in new ways.
Although podcasts have been around in one form or another since the early aughts, their ubiquity and popularity has skyrocketed in recent years. Apple, Spotify, Pandora, Google, and Stitcher, among other platforms, have changed the game when it comes to distribution, variety, and access. Wildly popular programs like Serial, Pod Save America, My Favorite Murder, and The Daily have set the standard for content excellence across the news and mystery genres, while The Joe Rogan Experience, Comedy Bang! Bang!, WTF with Marc Maron, and Conan O’Brien Needs a Friend are leading the way in the comedy space.
If you want your dulcet tones to break into the digital airwaves and bring your audience information or entertainment and laughs (or maybe all three), you will of course need solid distribution and top-notch content. But you also need legal protection both for you and for your content. While podcasting may seem straightforward enough to not warrant the involvement of a lawyer, there’s more to it than you might think. Here are five things to do to protect yourself and your content when entering the world of podcasting.
- Form a Company: You may have already done this, but setting up a company, whether a corporation, partnership, or LLC, is a smart first step in becoming a content provider. Apart from tax implications (which your accountant can explain to you), the corporate form creates a shield around you to protect your personal assets from certain forms of liability (for instance, breach of contract), limiting legal exposure to the assets of the company where it can be said that the company is the liable party. The corporate form may not protect you from torts such as defamation and copyright infringement if you (intentionally or not) slip up in your individual capacity, but the company can still potentially absorb the exposure for torts it is deemed to have committed. You may also want to use a corporation or LLC to hold your intellectual property (more on IP below) or “loan out” your services as talent, which can be helpful from a financial standpoint (again, talk to your accountant). Setting up a company can be simple enough to be a DIY project but might become more complicated, requiring professional advice, depending on the arrangement you want and if you have multiple shareholders or members. But it’s generally not that expensive and could save you headaches in the long run. Once you’ve formed your company, make sure that you assign any existing contracts to the company (an attorney can help you with this as well), and that future contracts are in the name of the company – not your own name.
- Obtain Copyright and Trademark Protection: To protect your original content, you should apply to register copyrights in that content. While ideas and concepts are not copyrightable, the tangible expression of those ideas is, including scripts, sound recordings, skits or sketches, songs, and even, in some instances, individual jokes. If the content is original to you (i.e., not simply copied from someone else) and is in a “fixed” medium of expression, you can apply to register your work with the U.S. Copyright Office. The application process is more straightforward than the trademark process (discussed below) and the basic fees are reasonable; the bar to obtaining a registration is also pretty low in that “originality” for copyright purposes requires only minimal creativity, and it is far less likely that another copyright owner will challenge your application. While it may seem onerous to register each episode of a podcast – especially if you release episodes more than once a week – there are ways to potentially streamline the process and keep costs down, and copyright counsel can be helpful in this regard. Registering copyrights will also help you if your podcast one day moves into other media, such as television or a published book.
Have a clever name for your podcast? You should consider applying for a trademark registration. If you offer goods or services (including entertainment services like podcasts) using a name, logo, or short phrase as a source indicator, you may be eligible for federal trademark protection through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Simply using the word, phrase, or logo “in commerce” is enough to give you some rights to enforce against infringers, but registration gives you more rights and enhanced damages if someone tries to rip off your mark. It’s important to note, though, that there are filing fees and other expenses involved in applying to register a trademark (and in maintaining a trademark once it is registered), and during the application process other trademark owners have a chance to challenge your mark if they think it is too similar to theirs. The application process is also more complex than applying to register a copyright and it is usually advisable to seek legal counsel to help ensure your mark is not “blocked” or otherwise rejected.
- Obtain Necessary Licenses, Releases, and Permissions: If you are using third-party content (playing audio clips or music, reading from a script or a book, etc.), you should make sure you have permission to do so from the owner of the copyright. Despite popular misconceptions, there is no magic percentage that you can use without consequence (e.g., 8 measures of a song, 30 seconds of a comedy bit, 5% of a book) and the question of whether something is “fair use” is complex, gray, and extremely fact sensitive. The best practice is to make sure you have a license (whether written or oral) to use content that is not exclusively yours or seek out content from royalty-free libraries or that can be used under Creative Commons licenses. And when that content includes the voice or other identifying aspect of a third party, you’ll need to get that person’s permission as well, separate from the necessary copyright permissions. A person’s voice is part of their “right of publicity” which is distinct from copyright and generally (with some exceptions) requires permission to use.
If you have guests appear on your podcast, make sure they sign an appearance release that allows you to use their names and likenesses (e.g., voices) including for commercial, advertising, and promotional purposes and that releases you from liability for the ways in which guests’ names and likenesses are used. While the best practice is to get written permission, you can also secure this consent verbally by having the guest read a brief script on air. There are special considerations when dealing with minors that are beyond the scope of this article, and in such situations, it is best to consult a lawyer familiar with minor talent.
- Vet Your Content and Read Your Contracts: Related to number 3, if you are using third-party content (assuming you have permission), you should make sure that content doesn’t infringe anyone else’s rights. Issues in the podcasting space, especially in comedy, usually arise in the context of defamation. For example, if you source a clip of another comedian’s latest standup special and that comedian makes a defamatory statement about another identifiable person, you may be liable for re-publishing that defamatory statement. The best practice is to review content before using it and consult a lawyer if you have concerns about any piece of content.
Also, if you sign any contracts, whether to acquire or license content, or for a third party to distribute or host your own content, read them before you sign them. If you sign a contract you normally are bound even if you haven’t read it, so always understand what you are signing before you put pen to paper or fingers to keyboard. When licensing third-party content, make sure you’re indemnified in case the person who provided you with the content didn’t have sufficient permission to do so, and when reviewing terms set out by hosting platforms, know who controls your RSS feed; typically, the host will control it for the period they host it, but unless your content is exclusive to one platform (for instance, Spotify), the platform should not own the stream or the content. And note that in many jurisdictions, an email agreement is considered a binding contract – so be careful what you agree to via email. Usually the best time to engage an attorney is when an offer is initially made to you – even if it takes the form of an email as opposed to a formal contract. There are obviously more issues that may arise than just these, so don’t sign away your rights unknowingly!
- Get Errors and Omissions Insurance: Many insurance companies offer E&O insurance for media and entertainment companies (such as AXIS Capital, AXA XL, QBE, and OneBeacon) and getting coverage is a smart idea particularly given how much litigation arises out of media and entertainment properties. Media insurance policies often cover copyright and trademark claims, contract claims, defamation claims, and other risks that commonly arise in the media and entertainment space. While this may seem like an unnecessary cost, especially for an individual or small business, those who make their living in media and entertainment should seriously consider it – and as the podcast business becomes more mature and sophisticated, insurance is increasingly being required in connection with certain forms of distribution.
The drama continues to unfold in the world of Internet retransmission of broadcast TV. As we reported here, the Second Circuit on July 16 denied en banc rehearing of its holding that internet re-broadcaster Aereo did not violate TV networks’ public performance rights, despite vigorous dissents from Judges Chin and Wesley. On September 5, the U.S. district court for the District of D.C. stepped in the ring – but into the corner of the Central District of California and its BarryDriller decision – holding that the Copyright Act forbids Aereo copycat FilmOn X from re-transmitting the plaintiffs’ copyrighted programs over the internet, and that the plaintiffs were likely to succeed on the merits of their claim for violation of the public performance right. On September 12, the court reaffirmed its decision, denying the defendant’s request to stay or limit the injunction. Continue reading
On July 19th, 2013, the Fourth Circuit held for the first time that copyright interests can be transferred electronically under Section 204 (a) of the Copyright Act. The Fourth Circuit’s decision adds to a growing body of law suggesting that an electronic “click” or “tap” can constitute a “signed writing” for purposes of transferring copyright interests. In an important ruling for the photo industry, the court also held that registrants of collective work databases are eligible for copyright protection with respect to the individual works contained within such database.
CDAS Partner Eleanor M. Lackman authored an amicus brief on behalf of the Copyright Alliance in the Ninth Circuit case Fox Television Stations v. Aereokiller. In the brief, Ms. Lackman argues on behalf of The Copyright Alliance that The Copyright Alliance argues in the brief that district judge George Wu was correct in granting an injunction against Aereokiller, a service that provides unlicensed broadcast television over the internet for a fee. Ms. Lackman writes: Continue reading
CDAS Partner Joshua B. Sessler’s client 10X Management is featured in a great story in Bloomberg Businessweek. 10X represents top freelance software programmers, pairing them with Silicon Valley companies, negotiating their salaries, and helping to manage their finances. Continue reading
CDAS Partner Eleanor M. Lackman was quoted by Law 360 in the wake of the most recent Second Circuit decision in WNET, Thirteen v. Aereo, Inc.; Am. Broad. Cos., Inc. v. Aereo, Inc.
The Second Circuit’s decision may hold significant repercussions for the cable television industry. Within the article, Eleanor observes that the decision places Aereo in an advantageous position in comparison with traditional cable systems and notes the importance of Judge Denny Chin’s dissent, which labels the Aereo business model a “sham” designed to exploit loopholes in the definition of a “public performance” under copyright law. Continue reading